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Paul Schlette, Sven Brändström, Martin Eisemann, Sören Sigvardsson, Per-Olof Nylander, Rolf Adolfsson, Carlo Perris, (1998), Perceived parental rearing behaviours and temperament and character in healthy adults. Personality and Individual Differences. Vol 24, No 5, pp 661-668, Great Brittain.
Abstract In a study of 132 healthy individuals, the relationships between Temperament and Character traits (assessed by the TCI, Temperament and Character Inventory) on the one hand and perceived parental rearing (assessed by EMBU, Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran—My memories of Upbringing) on the other hand, were studied. The temperament dimensions of harm avoidance and reward dependence and the character dimension of self-directedness yielded the most frequent and highest correlations with the factors rejection, emotional warmth and overprotection. In particular rejecting rearing behaviour and lack of emotional warmth of both parents during childhood, seemed to constitute a risk factor for development of high harm avoidant behaviour (anticipatory worry, fear of uncertainty, shyness) and low self-directed behaviour (blaming others, unable to set goals and values, helplessness, lack of self-acceptance and low self-esteem). It was further found that parental emotional warmth contributed highly to the development of social sensitivity and attachment (Reward Dependence, RD) and was more pronounced in female than in male subjects.
Schlette, P, Perris, C, Lundberg, M & Adolfsson, R (1998) Parental Perceptions and Dimensions of Temperament and Character in the Light of Attachment Theory. Commplessita & Cambiamento 7: 35-57 (Complexity and Change)
Sven Brändström, Paul Schlette, Thomas R. Przybeck, Mattias Lundberg, Thomas Forsgren, Sören Sigvardsson, Per-Olof Nylander, Lars-Göran Nilsson, Robert C. Cloninger, Rolf Adolfsson (1998), Swedish Normative data on Personality using the Temperament and Character Inventory. Comprehensive Psychiatry, Vol. 39, No 3, 1998: pp122-128
Abstract The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) is a self-report personality questionnaire based on Cloninger's psychobiological model of personality, which accounts for both normal and abnormal variation in the two major components of personality, temperament and character. Normative data for the Swedish TCI based on a representative Swedish sample of 1,300 adults are presented, and the psychometric properties of the questionnaire are discussed. The structure of the Swedish version replicates the American version well for the means, distribution of scores, and relationships within the between scales and subscales. Further, the Swedish inventory had a reliable factor structure and test-retest performance. The results of this study confirm the theory of temperament and character as a seven-factor model of personality.
Per-Olof Nylander, Paul Schlette, Sven Brändström, Marita Nilsson, Thomas Forsgren, Lars Forsgren, Rolf Adolfsson (1996), Migraine: Temperament and Character, J. Psychiat. Res., Vol. 30, No 5, pp.359-368
Abstract The personality profile of 26 adult migraine patients from a large Swedish family with migraine and 87 controls were studied by means of Cloninger's seven-factor model of Temperament and Character (TCI; Temperament and Character Inventory). For the diagnosis of migraine, a questionnaire, slightly modified to fit the criteria according to the AD HOC committee on the classification of headaches of the International Headache Society, was used. The TCI assesses four dimensions of temperament, including novelty-seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA), reward dependence (RD) and persistence (P), and three dimensions of character, including self-directedness (SD), cooperativeness (C) and self-transcendence (ST). Psychiatric morbidity did not differ between this family and the general population. One migraine patient had double depression (dysthymia and recurrent depression) and one had a personality disorder. No significant difference could be found in the higher order dimensions of temperament (NS, HA, RD and P) and character (SD, C and ST) between migraine patients and controls. However, on the subscale level, NS showed a slightly higher average in NS1 (exploratory excitability) and a significantly higher (p = 0.0448) average in NS2 (impulsivity) in migraine patients compared to controls. Somatic anxiety has been shown to be positively correlated with NS, and especially impulsivity. Our results showed a tendency of this personality profile, and may suggest an association between migraine and somatic anxiety.
Bejerot S, Schlette P, Ekselius L, Adolfsson R, von Knorring L. Personality disorders and relationship to personality dimensions measured by the Temperament and Character Inventory in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1998: 98: 243-249
AbstractThe occurrence of personality disorders was investigated in 36 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder by means of the SCID Screen questionnaire. In addition, the personality dimensions were explored by means of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). In total, 75% of the patients fulfilled the criteria for a personality disorder according to the SCID Screen questionnaire, mostly (55%) within cluster C. Several significant correlations were found between the separate personality disorders (PD) and subscales of the TCI, the most pronounced being between avoidant and obsessive-compulsive PD and novelty-seeking and self-directedness. Strong correlations were also found between self-directedness and paranoid and borderline PD. In multiple regressions where the presence of PD in clusters A, B and C, respectively, were used as dependent variables and where the separate subscales of the TCI were used as independent variables, the multiple R reached 0.68, 0.76 and 0.80 in clusters A, B and C, respectively. Thus 46-64% of the variance in the personality disorder clusters could be explained by the TCI subscales.
M. Lundberg, C. Perris, P. Schlette, R. Adolfsson. Intergenerational transmission of perceived parenting (1999), Personality and Individual Differences 2000, Pages 865-877
Abstract A study is reported in which the possible occurrence of a significant relationship between the experience of parenting, in a large series of parent–offspring pairs from 67 multigenerational families, aged 17–90 yr was investigated. The sample generated 448 parent–offspring pairs. Both parents and offsprings, independently of each other, completed the EMBU (a Swedish acronym for ‘early memories of parental rearing’). Consistently with other studies in the literature, in which different approaches were used, several significant correlations were found, especially concerning the experience of emotional warmth in fathers and a similar experience both in sons and daughters. Correlations between the experience of mothers and those of offsprings proved to be weaker and mostly refer to dysfunctional rearing attitudes (overprotection and rejection). Even though, the reported findings add to the body of knowledge as to a possible intergenerational transmission of parenting, they cannotanswer the question concerning the extent to which temperamental characteristicscontribute to the correlations which were presented. Suggestions for further studies to elucidate this and other relevant issues are therefore, warranted.
Adolfsson, R, Schlette, P, Forsgren, T & Lundberg, M (1997) Personlighetsbedömning Enligt Cloningers Psykobiologiska Modell. SERIP 1997: 1: 2-10. Pfizer AB, Stockholm
Ohlsson. M, Lundberg. M, Wikström. A, Brändström. S & Schlette. P (1994) Temperament and Character in Relation to Performance on Episodic Memory Tasks, Paper presented at NorAge´94, Oslo, Norway
M. Lundberg, C. Perris, P. Schlette, R.Adolfsson. Transhistorical Variations in Personality and their Association with experiences of Parental Rearing. European Psychiatry 1999; 14, 1-16
Abstract A population sample comprised of 765 subjects (367 males and 398 females), in the age range of 15–81 years, completed the EMBU, a reliable questionnaire aimed at assessing experiences of parental rearing, and the TCI, a self-report questionnaire aimed at assessing dimensions of temperament and character. The study had three main aims: 1) to verify, on a larger scale, previous findings suggesting the occurrence of significant associations between experiences of parental rearing and aspects of temperament and character, 2) to assess possible variations in temperament and character in cohorts of subjects who have grown up in different historical epochs, and 3) to investigate to what extent transgenerational differences in parental rearing are detectable in different associations with various dimensions of personality. Several, albeit small, significant and meaningful associations between experiences of parental rearing and both temperament and character dimensions have been found, adding support to the robustness of previously reported results obtained in an independent smaller series. Also, several significant differences among subjects in different age groups have been found, both concerning temperament variables and character dimensions. Finally, the results show that associations between experiences of parental rearing and dimensions of temperament and character are most pronounced in subjects belonging to the youngest cohort and almost nil in the cohort comprising the oldest subjects.
Forsgren T, Edwardsson H, Schlette P, Holmberg B-M, Holmgren B, Adolfsson R. Harm Avoidance as vulnerability factor of depression in the elderly (1999), in Press
Forsgren T, Schlette P, Holmgren B, Adolfsson R. Temperament and Character dimensions are predictive of recurrent depressions in elderly with affective disorders. Submitted European Journal of Psychiatry 2002
C.Perris, D. Fowler, L. Skagerlind, O. Chambon, L. henry, J.Richter, J. Valls Blanco, A. Schaub, M. Casacchia, R. Ronconi, P. Schlette. The Assessment of Dysfunctional Working Models of Self and Others in severely disturbed patients: a Preliminary Cross-national Study. In Cognitive psychotherapy of Psychotic and Personality Disorders: Handbook of Theory and Practice, 1998; 4; 63-73